Throughout Rizal’s life, he continued writing and advocating reforms such as the recognition of Filipinos as free and equal citizens to the Spanish. Had other colonies been maintained or certain battles victorious, Las Islas Filipinas could have included, for example, territory in what is now Borneo and Cambodia. Muslim traders traveled in and around the southern islands, and over time, these merchants likely married into wealthy local families, encouraging permanent settlements while spreading Islam throughout the area. Rizal, born to a relatively prosperous family of Filipino, Spanish, Chinese, and Japanese descent, was well-educated in the Philippines and in parts of Europe. History therefore is an integral part of literature. Spanish colonial leaders, however, never dominated or governed the local area, despite laying claim to the territory. Widely recognized as simply a puppet government, the dominating Japanese military continued occupying the area. After losing to the United States in several land and naval battles, Spain released the Philippines and other colonies to the US in exchange for US $20 million, as agreed upon in the Treaty of Paris of 1898. Poems written were amateurish and mushy, which phrasing and diction is awkward and artificial. . Initially, some regarded the Japanese as liberators, freeing the Philippines from the United States and bringing the islands into the Japanese empire. B. The land has an area of 298,170 km² and is slightly larger than Arizona. DANA R. HERRERA is currently an Associate Professor of Anthropology at Saint Mary’s College of California. All of these publications are in English except Unitas, which is in both Spanish and English, and the Fookien Times, which is in Chinese and English. He built up friendly relations with some of the local chiefs and tried to convert them to Roman Catholicism. Negritos are various ethnic groups in isolated parts of Southeast Asia. During this month, at least 100,000 civilians died at the hands of Japanese soldiers. . The first period of Philippine literary history is the longest. It became much more widespread among Filipinos than Spanish ever was, and by the late 1960s, Philippine English was recognized as a distinct, nativized variety (Llamzon 1969 ). 8. Spanish colonizers soon realized they were against a strong, although not entirely uniform or unified, Muslim people. Rizal’s popularity grew amongst Filipinos fighting against Spanish oppression, drawing the suspicion of local officials who accused him of associating with armed insurgents. Explorers for Spain were not the first to encounter the islands. 3.1 Negritos Although the details vary in the retelling, one Philippine creation myth focuses on this core element: a piece of bamboo, emerging from the primordial earth, split apart by the beak of a powerful bird. Within the framework of Postcolonial English varieties, I have investigated the Philippine variety of English, which was a result of and emerged from its colonial background. The treaty was hotly debated by the Senate. Many of these families later leveraged their power into political and economic dynasties, leading to a contemporary Philippine government mired in nepotism, cronyism, and corruption.17. She has conducted research studies in the Philippines, United States, and Europe. The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century. And so I am an anti-imperialist. During Spanish rule, the boundaries of the empire changed as Spain conquered, abandoned, lost, and regained several areas in the region. Socially and geographically isolated communities retained some indigenous traditions while experiencing Spanish colonial culture in varying degrees. Here are 8 instances of Filipino English terms/usage that may elicit much gnashing of teeth and knotted eyebrows or knowing nods and flat out laughs. Their influence on Philippine theatre is most apparent through the bodabil (vaudeville) and the plays and dramas staged or translated into English. Notes on Philippine Literature: A History and Anthology Chapter 1: Oral Lore From Pre-colonial Times (---1564) Facts and Information (illuminated by the chapter) 1. The content of national history textbooks seems to be to glorify the nation, to explain why “we” are better than anyone else, and to justify why we should impose our religion, our system of government, and our values on other people in other parts of the world. Rosario M. Cortes, Celestina P. Boncan, and Ricardo T. Jose, The Filipino Saga: History as Social Change (Quezon City: New Day Publisher, 2000); Vicente L. Rafael, Contracting Colonialism: Translation and Christian Conversion in Tagalog Society Under Early Spanish Rule (Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1998); William H. Scott, “The Spanish Occupation of the Cordillera in the 19th Century” in Philippine Social History: Global Trade and Local Transformations, ed. The Philippines is an archipelagic nation in Southeast Asia consisting of 7,107 islands. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Download the book Footnotes to Philippine History in PDF and EPUB format. have formally been included in the Philippine/Filipino alphabet, there is still an overwhelming tendency to transliterate foreign words into native pronunciation forms. Subsequently, Spanish troops invaded the islands, but didn’t establish a settlement until 1565. This paper. Mark Twain, prominent author, wrote for the The New York Herald in 1900: I have read carefully the Treaty of Paris, and I have seen that we do not intend to free, but to subjugate the people of the Philippines. In 1542, Spanish conquistador Ruy Lopez de Villalobos named the islands after King Philip of Spain. 1 (1996): 64. 2.Koran- The Muslim Bible originating from Arabia. Varieties around the World, 140. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/rp.html [15.2.2008],  cf. of Spain. Area: 120,000 square miles; slightly larger than Arizona, Freedom House rating from “Freedom in the World 2015” (ranking of political rights and civil liberties in 195 countries): Partly Free, Chief of State and Head of Government: President Benigno Aquino (since June 30, 2010), Elections: President elected by popular vote and serves a single six-year term, Legislative Branch: Bicameral Congress; Senate (twenty-four seats, half of the seats are elected every three years, elected by popular vote, serving six-year terms) and House of Representatives (287 seats, all seats elected by popular vote every three years, serving three-year terms), Judicial Highest Courts: Supreme Court (chief justice and fourteen associate justices), Judges: Appointed by president on recommendations by the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until age seventy. These new additions are notable for having been brought to the dictionary’s attention by Filipino speakers of English who answered the OED’s online call for word suggestions.. Period of Emergence (1920-1930) 1. PHILIPPINE LITERATURE (INTRODUCTION) LITERATURE - An art; from a latin word ‘litera’ meaning letter - Body of written works of a particular time, country especially those valued for excellence of form and expression. Domination of the southern half of the archipelago proved impossible due in large part to the earlier introduction of Islam in approximately 1380. See Laura M. Ahearn, “Language, Thought, and Culture,” in Living Language: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology (Malden: Wiley-Backwell, 2012), 65–98 for a general overview of the research regarding language, local traditions, and culture change. McCoy et al. In 1935 partial autonomy or limited sovereignty was granted under a “commonwealth” status, which was the foundation for a planned full independence from the United States in 1946. History. Period of the Third Republic (1981-1985) 9. It is located in the western Pacific Ocean, south of Taiwan, east of Vietnam and northeast of Malaysia. The name Negrito, which means little Negro, refers to the small stature of the people. “Transparency International: the Global Coalition Against Corruption,” accessed September 13, 2014, http://tinyurl.com/qfms53j. 3.3 Arrival of English, IV. When, during the Seven Years’ War, Spain lost control of Manila from 1762–64, the area effectively became part of the British Empire. During World War II, however, Japan attacked the Philippines and held the country from 1941 to 45. 2 (2011) 34–38. - High royalties for the sales From the late 1500s until the late 1800s, Spain attempted to gain a foothold in the area— succeeding only to the extent that some soldiers were eventually allowed by local leaders to maintain a small military presence. If you don't see any interesting for you, use our search form on bottom ↓ . 7. During the Second World War (between 1941 and 1945) the Philippines were occupied by Japan and the path towards full independence was briefly interrupted. Vicente Rafael’s White Love and Other Events in Filipino History (2000) chronicles this disconnection between the rule of the colonial center and those within the territorial borders.1 His conclusions suggest in part that although the naming and mapping of Filipinas afforded the Spanish a certain legitimacy when claiming the islands, this was in some ways a cosmetic gesture. History. Literary Compositions that Influenced the World 1.The Bible or the Sacred Writings – This has become the basis of Christianity originating from Palestine and Greece. Today, Rizal’s immortality extends to national hero status, with numerous awards, national monuments, parks, associations, movies, poems, and books dedicated to his memory. English in the Philippines by Doray Espinosa (Language Institute of Japan - LIOJ) It has often been said that in the Philippines, America was able to do in 50 years what Spain was never able to accomplish in 300 - make the Filipinos understand and eventually accept, with affection, their masters. We have gone there to conquer, not to redeem. 12 (2000): 2357–2375. The two official languages are Filipino (based on Tagalog) and English, but about 180 languages and dialects exist on the island.. The Philippine ESL Journal is a refereed publication which aims at providing on-line access to all those involved in the research, teaching and learning of English as an International language.. The constant struggle to extend Spanish hegemony to the south spawned the Spanish-Moro Wars, a series of long-standing hostilities between Muslims and Spanish. When investigating the English language of the Philippines it is important to consider the history and the arrival of the languages beforehand. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. He served as the Military Adviser of the Philippine Commonwealth, 1936-1941; Commanding General of the United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE), 1941; Supreme Allied Commander of the Southwest Pacific, 1942-1945; and Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers for Occupied Japan, 1945-1951. •KWF is propagating the use of Ortograpiyang Pambansa (2013) as the model for creating the orthographies of other Philippine Languages. This study examines those factors that have contributed to the introduction and development of the teaching of English in the Philippine educational system. In the 1560s, Spaniard Miguel López de Legazpi introduced Catholic friars to the north. . Local factories under Japanese control produced goods for the war effort while Filipinos suffered food shortages. Although its official status of English as a language that can be used for official communications has …  cf. Because of the Spanish settlement, Spanish was declared as the official and main language. on MTBE in the history of English and Philippine language policy and planning. Filipinos were first introduced to English when the British invaded Manila and Cavite in 1762, but this occupation had no lasting effect on English in the country.A national variety called Philippine English evolved eventually, as a result of the American colonization, and was arguably one of the fastest to develop in the postcolonial world. Because it was under Spanish rule for 333 years and under U.S. tutelage for a further 48 years, the Philippines has many cultural affinities with the West. Unlike the previous editions, however, this collection presents only the English translations of Philippine writing in the local and Spanish languages. The Philippines were a Spanish colony for over three centuries, but when the Americans took control in 1898, they immediately implemented English instruction in schools (Gonzalez 2004). The US colonial rule of the Philippines started in 1905 with very limited local rule. It all began about 30000 years ago with the arrival of the Philippines’ aboriginal inhabitants: the Negritos. The exact route of and the reasons for their immigration to Asia are still a matter of great speculation and controversy.. The Philippines is made up of a population of some 72 million people who together speak some 85 Malayo-Polynesian languages and live on some 7,000 islands. The population includes the Aeta, Agta, Ayta, Ati, Dumagat and at least 25 other Philippine tribes. Bonifacio P. Sibayan, The Intellectualization of Filipino and Other Essays on Education and Sociolinguistics (Manila: De La Salle University Press, 1999), 543. Filipinos were first introduced to English when the British invaded Manila and Cavite in 1762, but this occupation had no lasting effect on English in the country.A national variety called Philippine English evolved eventually, as a result of the American colonization, and was arguably one of the fastest to develop in the postcolonial world. PHILIPPINE HISTORY? spoke with the voice of departed spirits, and delivered prayers in song”;5 and Tagalogs whose pantheon included “Lakapati, fittingly represented by a hermaphrodite image with both male and female parts, [who] was worshipped in the fields at planting time.”6 Over time, however, Spain’s colonial hegemony, power, and influence used to consolidate their rule spread through the vehicle of Catholicism, supplanting or heavily influencing several of the local spiritual traditions, which were transformed to fit the new religious paradigm. James Hamilton-Paterson, America’s Boy: A Century of Colonialism in the Philippines (New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC, 1998), 33. See “Mark Twain— The World of 1898: The Spanish-American War,” Library of Congress, accessed September 13, 2014, http://tinyurl.com/y4zyea. Gen Douglas McArthur was the youngest Chief of Staff of the US Army. 12. Throughout the business and government sector, English became the dominant language, as well as the language that bridged communication gaps between regional Filipino cultural groups who did not share an indigenous language.Today, English, along with Filipino, is recognized as a national language of the Philippines. On this page you can read or download multiple choice test in philippine history in PDF format. 5.3 Morpho-syntax As history would have it, however, Spain encountered serious resistance in the Filipinas south, sowing the seeds of one of the oldest and bitterest divisions in contemporary Philippine society. 4. Contemporary Period (1986 to present) 2. Following Japan’s surrender, the US and the Philippine Governments signed the Treaty of Manila (or the Treaty of General Relations) on July 4th, 1946. In 1521 Ferdinand Magellan explored the Philippines and claimed the island for Spain. (2005). Answers: 3 question Readings in philippine history book pdf - e-edukasyon.ph Her current scholarly interests include pedagogy and technology, digital media, and the Filipino diaspora. Download PDF In the Beginning. Prominent urban planner Daniel Burnham visited the Philippines in 1904 and designed the capital city of Manila for redevelopment.11 US culture dominated Philippine life. Borneo-Philippine languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian language family and have many small groups of languages, with the most important languages being Tagalog, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilokano, Kapampangan, Malagasy and Tausug.. By the time of Spanish arrival in the sixteenth century, the Islamic way of life was already well-established; for example, the Kingdom of Maynila (site of present-day Manila) was ruled by Rajah Sulayman, a Muslim who fought against Spanish conquest. English in the Philippines(cont.) The history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans using rafts or boats at least 709,000 years ago as suggested by the discovery of Pleistocene stone tools and butchered animal remains associated with hominin activity. SECTION 9. The Philippine History and Contemporary Issues subject is designed for G10 to engage students in the different topics by providing thorough and honest discussions of primary and secondary sources as well as current issues in the country. The issue of shifting boundaries notwithstanding, the modern-day cartographic image of the Philippine archipelago as a unified whole was credited to Jesuit priest Pedro Murillo Velarde, Francisco Suarez, and Nicolas de la Cruz who, in 1734, conceptualized, sketched, and engraved the first accurate map of the territory. It spread rapidly, to the detriment of SPANISH, because it was the new language of government, preferment, and education. contemporary .... [PDF.ub97] History of the Filipino People (Eighth Edition) - Philippine Book History of the ... History of the Filipino Teodoro Agoncillo - pdf download. Brief history of WW II: Philippine Setting Reading: Day of Valor 2. Ultimately, ratification of the treaty was approved on February 6, 1899, by a vote of fifty-seven in favor and twenty-seven against—a single vote more than the required twothirds majority. James Hamilton-Paterson, a British travel writer and commentator on the Philippines, estimates that the war’s death toll included over 4,000 American and 16,000 Filipino soldiers, as well as almost one million civilians who perished from hunger and disease.10 Although the war officially ended in 1902, skirmishes continued for several years afterward. He was the Vice President of Manuel Quezon when World War II broke out, and assumed the presidency upon the death of the latter in 1944. Filipino experience of Western colonialism and its linguistic effects has been unique, in that there have been two colonizers in succession: Spain from the 16c and the US from 1898, when English arrived in the islands. Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, claiming this area for the future King Philip II of Spain in the mid-1500s, took possession of the islands while imagining the first borders of the future Philippine state. Introducing Language in Use, 414-416. She received her Master’s and Doctorate degrees from the University of California at Davis. In 1935, the United States designated the Philippines as a commonwealth and established a Philippine government that was meant to transition to full independence. Gavin Shatkin, “Obstacles to Empowerment: Local Politics and Civil Society in Metropolitan Manila, the Philippines,” Urban Studies 37, no. Homo luzonensis, a species of archaic humans, was present on the island of Luzon at least 67,000 years ago. Our writers strove to The linguistic background and colonial history of the Philippines provides an illuminating example of the development of a new variety of English. Because of this, English was declared the official language, as well as the and main language of education. Lydia N. Yu-Jose in “World War II and the Japanese in the Prewar Philippines” (1996) describes an immigrant population of approximately 20,000 Japanese people living in the islands prior to the war.15 Some were temporary migrants, content to work in the Philippines for several years and then return to Japan with their earnings. Schneider (2007). Overall, scholars estimate between 500,000 and one million deaths of Filipinos during the World War II Japanese occupation. “Books by Rizal, José (sorted by popularity),” Project Gutenberg, accessed March 10, 2014, http://tinyurl.com/ku7fygt. Others were permanent settlers, many of whom would go on, for example, to establish agricultural operations, open factories, and begin logging operations. Led by heroes such as Bonifacio, the Philippine Revolution began in 1896 and included numerous battles against Spanish forces on multiple fronts. . 11. Security: The Philippine government has been dealing with insurgent groups throughout the past couple of decades. 1 (1998) 3–23. Furthermore, I will briefly explore the present-day language situation, especially the different local languages and the code-switching or code-mixing between the two official languages Filipino and English. Linguist Bonifacio P. Sibayan, for example, discusses the introduction of English by American colonial authorities as the medium of instruction in schools: “English thus became the only medium of instruction in the schools, the only language approved for use in the school, work, in public school buildings, and on public school playgrounds.”12 Sibayan further explains that while English-only eventually changed to bilingual instruction, English usage had become pervasive throughout the whole of society. Noli Me Tángere and El Filibusterismo, first published in Germany and Belgium, respectively, brought international attention to the abuses of the Filipino people by the colonial government and Catholic Church. • Campaign for Philippine Independence (1919-1935) • The Commonwealth Republic 3. Bloomer et al. Unlike Spain's strategy, America's means of attack and assimilation was not religion. During the war, famed General Douglas MacArthur also organized American troops to fight alongside the Filipinos. Second, it will present the results of an attitudinal survey on languages in education in the Philippines. During the negotiation of the treaty, the American Anti-Imperialist League opposed the annexation of the Philippines. Socio-economic transformations and the Americanization of the Filipinos LESSON SEVEN: Philippines under attack—WW II and Japanese Imperialism 1. I am opposed to having the eagle put its talons on any other land.9. . In fact, even though the letters c, f, j, x, z, etc. Mexican and Spanish dominance over the land and the people, over varying periods of time, witnessed the incorporation of English, Spanish, Filipino and native languages, to … A.W. 5.4 Lexis, VI. Finally, I want to discuss the significance of Philippine English for a teacher of foreign languages and to draw conclusions regarding the impact of English on the Philippines. READINGS IN PHILIPPINE. Renato Constantino, The Miseducation of the Filipino (Quezon City: Foundation for Nationalist Studies, 1982), 6; quoted in ibid., 551. A short summary of this paper. Philippine English continued to evolve throughout the various periods of the country’s postcolonial history.  As a result, English has a great historical importance and serves as a lingua franca between the different ethnic and language groups. After war reparations were paid in the 1950s, Japanese businesses and investors soon returned to the islands. Inflation Rate: 4.5 percent, Agricultural Products: Sugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, pork, beef, fish, Industries: Electronics assembly, garments, footwear, petroleum refining, Religion: 82.9 percent Catholic, 5 percent Muslim, 2.8 percent Evangelical Christian, 2.3 percent Iglesia ni Kristo (English translation: Church of Christ [different from US Church of Christ]), 4.5 percent other Christian. 15. Teaching Philippine English and its problems. Highly influenced by Western literary trends III. The life and works of rizal downloads. In 1898, the first bodabil was produced by the Manila Dramatic Guild for the sole purpose of entertaining American soldiers and other Americans residing in Manila. (Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1982). English has been in the Philippines for a hundred years, yet some of the best Filipino writers in English express ambivalence as to what should be done with it. The Philippines consist of 7,107 islands in the western Pacific Ocean, of which only eleven are bigger than 2500 km². 16. Yet it was the Spanish government that bound thousands of islands under a single colonial rule. Code switching isn’t unique to the Philippines, but we’d guess that it has led to Philippine English developing plenty of unique aspects. •Philippine languages generally use a Romanized writing system. , The Negritos speak Borneo-Philippine languages, also called “Outer Hesperonesian” or “Outer Western Malayo-Polynesian” languages. In the first years of US occupation, the battles were fought between the new US colonizers and Filipino guerrilla armies tired of existing under any foreign rule. During this era, Christian groups flourished as Protestants and other denominations began proselytizing via missionary expeditions. Only 1000 islands are bigger than 1 km². In just a few years, English became the privileged form of expression for poets, prose writers, and dramatists. 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