Pupae complete their development in two to six days at 32 to 37°C, but require 17 to 27 days at about 14°C). Once the female chooses a suitable puparium host, she lays a single egg in it. This material is based upon work supported by the Musca domestica is the type-species of Musca, a genus originally created by Linnaeus for a variety of higher Diptera, many of which are now known to be in other families (including fruit flies, cheese skippers and hoverflies). Figure 10. Encyclopedia on Insects, Vol. USDA Farmers' Bulletin 1408. at http://www.uky.edu/Ag/CritterFiles/casefile/insects/flies/houseflies/houseflies.htm. Males do not exhibit any parental investment. The most important damage related with this insect is the annoyance and the indirect damage produced by the potential transmission of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and nematodes) associated with this fly. High-moisture manure favors the survival of the house fly larva. Photograph by Matt Aubuchon, University of Florida. Pest Management Science 58: 174-178. This is why houseflies have a tendency to crawl on food. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. MacDonald RS, Surgeoner GA, Solomon KR. Houseflies can only intake food in liquid form. 1988. Comstock Publ Co. Ithaca, N.Y. 584 pp. (Hewitt, 1914; Marshall, 2006; Murvosh, et al., 1964; Robinson, 2005; Swan and Papp, 1972), The process of mating begins when the male strikes the female. Lord FT, Boston MD. This page has three tables, (1) Identification, (2) Look-alike … Accessed living in cities and large towns, landscapes dominated by human structures and activity. Serious problems occur when cities or suburban development occur near poultry production facilities, as residents usually will not tolerate the large numbers of flies emanating from such facilities. They may lay their eggs in human feces, where the maggots can filter feed on nutrient rich waste material. Seventy-seven individuals from 14 populations of M. domestica spanning 4 continents were sampled and analyzed for the presence of Hermes transposons. Photograph by USDA. referring to animal species that have been transported to and established populations in regions outside of their natural range, usually through human action. Good sanitation is the basic step in any fly management program. Around homes and businesses, screening or covering of windows, doors or air doors, and trash containers proves useful in denying access of flies to breeding sites. They are most abundant during the warm seasons, but some adults may survive through the winter season in temperate areas. Once the larvae hatch, they burrow into feces with their two mouth hooks and take up nutrients from the material. … It is commonly associated with animal feces, but has adapted well to feeding on garbage, so it is abundant almost anywhere people live. Internal hydrocarbons increased dramatically in relation to sexual … Liquids and dissolved foods are taken in through either the tiny grooves on the labella, known as the pseudotracheae, or through a channel between the upper and lower lips. "House Flies" (On-line). (2003). Notes on certain points of economic importance in the biology of the house fly. 1993. Prior to pupation, larvae migrate for up to 3 to 4 days to a dry area. Networks. Musca domestica Family: Muscidae Order: Diptera (ants, bees, wasps) U.S. Distribution: All states . Kelling, F., F. Lalenti, C. Den Otter. Though houseflies intake food through their labella, they taste their food through their feet. This species is always found in association with humans or the activities of humans. As the strike is occurring, the male forces the female’s wings open so they are horizontal, and her wings vibrate. living in the southern part of the New World. The lower surface of these lobes contains numerous transverse grooves that serve as liquid food channels. Sanchez-Arroyo, H., J. Capinera. Found on all continents (except maybe Antarctica) and in all biogeographic provinces; or in all the major oceans (Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. Specifically, they prefer temperatures that are below 15 degrees Celsius, which is common at the edge of dung heaps or the ground immediately surrounding the dung heap. 80-91. Accessed Olfactory senses are used extensively to find food. Help us improve the site by taking our survey. The number of eggs produced is a function of female size which, itself, is principally a result of larval nutrition. With the increasing incidence of insecticide resistant house fly populations, rising costs of insecticides and a growing public concern about actual or potential problems associated with insecticides, interest in alternative house fly control strategies has increased. Clockwise from left: eggs, larva, pupa, adult. Figure 3. having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Dung beetles disturb dung and disturb housefly larvae living in the dung, limiting reproduction. Researchers observe the electrical spikes in the stimulation of olfactory cells on their antennae to determine if the housefly under study is attracted or repelled by an odor. Photograph by Jim Kalisch, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences Entomology. Intermediate density is the most favorable growing condition for larvae. (Hafez, 2005; Hewitt, 1914; Kelling, et al., 2002; Marshall, 2006; Robinson, 2005; Swan and Papp, 1972), Housefly larvae exhibit migratory behavior in preparation for their pupal stage. at http://www.sciencemag.org/content/136/3514/388.short. Prepupa and sequence of puparia by age for the house fly, Musca domestica Linnaeus. The Housefly is a ubiquitous insect found in close proximity to humanity wherever he has gone. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services. New York, N.Y.: Dorling Kindersley Inc.. Murvosh, C., R. Fye, G. Labrecque. The larvae have mouth hooks used to filter-feed on masses of bacteria. 1913 The Reduction of Domestic Flies. The species most often released for biological suppression in North America are Muscidifurax raptor, Muscidifurax raptorellus, Sphalangia endius, and Sphalangia nigroaenea. February 24, 2012 (Hewitt, 1914; Marshall, 2006; Murvosh, et al., 1964; Robinson, 2005; Swan and Papp, 1972), Striking may also occur between two males because some male houseflies have incomplete sex recognition, and also because females exhibit low levels of sex pheromones. In North Florida, releases conducted with Sphalangia endius showed that they could successfully parasitize pupae, both above and below the soil surface. The second pair is reduced to halteres, which are used for balance. Search in feature Barnard DR, Geden CJ. Entomology & Nematology - University of Florida. 1925. Jalil, M., J. Rodriguez. This disparity is due to dense dispersal of humans in an urban area compared to wide dispersal of humans in rural areas. Females may avoid the strike by darting and flying away, and she can avoid the caress by shaking violently. It is the most common species found on hog and poultry farms, horse stables and ranches. 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